Typical 19th century great grandparents

My great grandfather, Frederick George Dunkley (1831-1916), lived all his life in the village of Silverstone, Northamptonshire.  It is a common surname in the area.  The census identifies him and many of the inhabitants there as general labourers but sometimes the term ‘woodman’ is added.  The countryside around is even today surrounded by ample forestry land and local historians have identified a distinctive culture of sturdy independence or general ‘cussedness’ in the men’s character.  Tree felling and timber sawing required some skill as well as a good level of fitness.  All the Dunkley men were short and muscular.  Frederick married in 1852, at the age of 22 to Elizabeth Ann Blackwell who was still a teenager.  They had 10 children.  Hard working, honest folk and devout Methodists who were proud of their respectability.

Frederick and Annie Dunkley, in old age

Frederick and Annie Dunkley, in old age

I have one studio portrait of them. Although poor, they have clearly dressed up for the occasion.  His suit is typical of the Victorian era and early twentieth century, along with a rather bold tie and an unusual-looking soft hat.  His beard is the early style of beard that first appeared in the mid-1850s but was often favoured by older gents well into the 1900s. His wife’s blouse and skirt combination was usual by the Edwardian era, her tailored skirt plain and her dressy blouse fashioned from the kind of bold patterned fabric often admired by mature ladies: to this she has added a prominent black lace collar that extends down the front – a separate ornamental accessory used to create an even more ornate effect.  Many clues point to the first decade of the 20th century and it may have marked their 50th wedding anniversary in 1902.

In the 1911 census Fred still describes himself as a worker, age 79.  He died in his 85th year and his wife in 1920 at the age of 88.  Their strong constitution was inherited by my grandfather, one of their sons and his daughter May who was the subject of my previous blog.  They were all very long lived and fit up to the end.  May preserved many of their Victorian habits and virtues – which included a good simple diet and lots of physical work – and a way of life that died with her.


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The King of Instruments

Do you know your diapason from your dulcet treble?  Would you recommend unisonal duplication of manual stops and couplers?  Do you approve of Robert Hope-Jones’s innovations?  To whom would you attribute the introduction of the ‘Melody attachment’?

My great-grandfather, Thomas Casson, designed church organs at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century.  I have reached the chronological point in writing up the history of his family when he became so obsessed with persuading the musical establishment of the value of his reforms, that he threw up his respectable job as a bank manager, moved his family from Wales to London to take over an organ-building company there and bankrupted himself in the process.  Three questions arise: how am I to gain an understanding of his inventions? how am I to to communicate their significance to a non-specialist reader? how much needs to be included to give a clear picture of his family’s life during this period?

A Casson Patent Positive Organ

A Casson Patent Positive Organ

As I leaf through his pamphlets – The Modern Organ, Reform in Organ Building, The Pedal Organ: Its History, Design and Control, Development of the Resources of the Organ – I am quickly bogged down in technicalities.  Yet, by careful perusal of these documents, and of comments by others in the field of organ-design, I begin to get a glimmering idea how some his innovations increased the musicality of what he liked to call ‘the king of instruments’ , and of how the ‘positive organs’ in which he specialised in the second half of his organ-designing career allowed many small churches all over the world to instal an instrument of much greater musical potential than had been on offer previously.  Despite much rebuilding, many of these still exist.  Only last summer, visiting a little church in North Wales recommended by Simon Jenkins, I found one, still carrying its plaque: “The Positive Organ Company, Casson’s Patent’.   (At that time he could not ‘own’ a company, because of the bankruptcy. ) They can also be found as far afield as New Zealand and California.

One way to explain his inventions is to put words into his mouth that he might have used to describe to a child how an organ works.  Gradually perhaps, by that method, I can build up an understanding in the minds of my readers fairly painlessly.

His obsession had a major impact on family life.  At first he dreamt of creating huge instruments of greater power than anyone could imagine.  It was his wife who gently persuaded him towards the small ‘positive organs’ that finally restored his fortune and made his name.  I see the late Victorian passion for larger and larger organs – forgive the sexual innuendos this subject inevitably brings with it – and the fierce rivalries that developed between various different individuals concerned with such things, as running parallel to the national competitive empire-building that would lead to cataclysmic war just a few years after Thomas Casson’s death.


© Diana Devlin


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Mr Punch’s History of the Great War

Of all the books I’ve acquired from relatives over the years one of my favourites is Mr. Punch’s History of the Great War.  Published in 1919 by Cassell and Company and edited by Charles L Graves (1856-1944) it uses extracts from Punch magazine to “provide a mirror of varying moods, month by month, but reflecting how England remained steadfastly true to her best traditions”.

Growing up I read Punch in the doctor’s and dentist’s surgeries and the brutality of some of the cartoons in this collection seemed to me far removed from the modern, gently satirical publication.

An absorbing article by Dr Esther MacCallum-Stewart on firstworldwar.com compares Punch with The Wipers Times suggesting “both believed that comedy should be employed in a cathartic role against the tension, fear and grief caused by the fighting.”

Before war broke out Punch had been criticised as being too militant, publishing only one strongly anti-war article by the then sub-editor A. A. Milne.  Thus Punch entered the conflict publishing what amounted to government sanctioned propaganda with “little comedic undertone”.  However as the war endured this did change as the public mood shifted. She adds a surprising point about Punch’s and indeed middle-class male Britain’s attitude to women’s employment.  Having always believed that this was universally applauded I was surprised to realise the fear that this provoked and Punch’s efforts to undermine their role.[1]

Although intended primarily for the home market copies did make their way to the front, at least to the officer class.  However the lack of battlefield reporters resulted in such inaccuracies that it seems to have been most welcome as a higher quality toilet paper and probably provided some of the impetus behind the papers produced by the soldiers including the Wipers Times.  bravo belgium

Mr Punch’s August 1914 selection begins by recapping; “Four weeks ago we stood on the edge of the great upheaval and knew it not”.  There are two cartoons one; “Bravo Belgium” originally published on 12th August 1914 and drawn by F H Townsend, and the other depicting a recruiting office medical.  “Bravo Belgium”, a particularly well-known cartoon now appears in the Keystage 3 History syllabus.

Barbara Selby

[1] Esther MacCallum-Stewart – firstworldwar.com 2009


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Leaving Africa

I have written a fair bit about our life in Kenya and Zaire in the eighties, when Ben was working for a multi-national company: our arrival from England with first one, then two babies.  There will be more to come but today I have been thinking about our departures from those countries.  This is perhaps down to the time of year, August being when we usually took annual leave and is also when we left both Kenya and Zaire for good.  Leaving was so much more than just going home – it was the end of  a way of life that came with sadnesses as well as a certain pleasure at being back in the swim of a more regular family life in Cambridge.

Leaving the people with whom Ben had spent his working life in the field in Kenya was one such – as was leaving our boys at the house.  They threw a party for us at the office where a goat was ceremoniously roasted and speeches made.  The  mood at the end was lightened by an announcement that Ben’s secretary, Beatrice, who had just given birth to a baby boy, father unknown, had called her son Ben Travers which led to uproarious laughter and cheering.  The refrain ‘Cheers, not tears’ followed us to our car and is something I have never forgotten.  For months after we left, as we walked about Cambridge, if Amelia saw a black man, she would say joyously, ‘Joseph!’, the name of our guard who she loved playing with, truncheon and all.  Several months after our return I got a letter in Cambridge written by Boniface, our general factotum.  He had gone to a letter-writer at a stall in the town and dictated what he wanted to say, ‘Darling Madam’ it began.  High and low I have searched for that letter and hope that one day I might find it again and be transported back to the green and friendly place that we called home for a few years at

Migori.  I dream that I slipped it into a book and that along with the dried frangipani blossom that I tucked into a biography of Karen Blixen (Isaak Dinesen really) and found not long ago, it could be added to my treasure trove of letters, photograph and most of all, memories.  Leaving Bunia in Zaire deserves its own chapter so I shall think on that for my next post.

Amelia and Joseph Migori 1983

Amelia and Joseph Migori 1983

Farewell Party Migori 1983 - 'Cheers not tears'

Farewell Party Migori 1983 – ‘Cheers not tears’

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Aunty May and the Widow’s Mite

May Dunkley when young

May Dunkley when young

Florence May Dunkley (1909-2005) was my mother’s only sister and four years older than her.  The name May was popular when she was born and a number of my friends had their own Aunty May.  She was the 7th child and first girl of George and Catherine Dunkley, who lived in Silverstone, Northamptonshire.  Life was hard for poor rural workers and May’s mother was an obsessively fussy housewife so must have been delighted to have a daughter to help out at last.  That certainly set the tone of May’s early life – she was made to go to the butcher every morning and then punished for being late for school with a wallop across her hand and had many other domestic burdens besides.  She came home from domestic service to nurse her dying mother during WW2 and then dutifully stayed to look after her widowed father.  It was taken for granted that was her role in life.  She never married.  May was deeply scarred by her mother’s painful death from bowel cancer and her father’s vascular dementia in the last few years of his life.  She was hysterical at times and bitter about lack of support from most other family members.  Perhaps they were afraid to encourage her weaknesses or any further dependence.  Her younger sister, my mother, escaped into marriage and motherhood.

I have done little to research my mother’s ancestors.  They were too poor to leave any records, bar their births, deaths and marriages.  I joked to one of my friends that it would be like writing another Akenfield with forestry rather than agricultural workers.  Their three-room cottage was replaced with a smart new council house in 1946.  When May’s father died in 1954 she was forced to take any job she could find and worked in a shoe factory in nearby Brackley for many years.  Energetic, orderly and frugal in her habits, her retirement was a long one which relied heavily on local and distant family for her social life.  She took family ties very seriously, was always ready to help out in practical ways and was generous with money from her own very limited means.  Her nieces and nephews were the greatest pleasure in her life – she had a rare childlike empathy with children of all ages.

When she died in 2005 the local Methodist minister spent most of one afternoon drawing her life story from me in preparation for his funeral address. He

May's 90th birthday

May’s 90th birthday

chose the Biblical story of the Widow’s Mite from the Gospel of Mark. In it Jesus is teaching at the Temple in Jerusalem.  He tells the story of a widow who donates two small coins (generally thought to be lepton) – the smallest and least valuable coins in circulation in Judea – while wealthy people donate much more. Jesus explains to his disciples that the small sacrifices of the poor mean more to God than the bigger, but proportionately lesser, donations of the rich.  How apt.  May touched many lives and held the extended family together in a way no-one else could.  We miss her still.


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The lives we Forgot to Remember

In relation to the centenary of the Great War we were, as the Chairman reminded us, half way through the period of thirty seven days between the gunshot that killed Archduke Franz Josef and the outbreak of full scale hostilities.

We were at the British Library for an evening panel discussion on The Forgotten Soldiers. Our panel comprised  Santanu Das and Jennifer Wellington of Kings College London, David Killigray of Goldsmith’s College and Stellenbosch University, and David Olusoga, presenter of the BBC television series ‘The World’s War.’ All have researched extensively in a range of former British dominions and colonies, and particularly the First World War’s impact on their peoples.

The statistics are astonishing. When war broke out, one quarter of the whole of humanity lived in the British Empire. An imperial war inevitably became a global war. We shall never know exactly how many men from the British dominions and colonies were mobilised during the War. Estimates range from 4 to 5 million. In addition, many women and children were recruited as labourers in the war effort.

We remember the famous expedition of the Australians and New Zealanders to Gallipoli, and the Canadians at Vimy Ridge. The British Dominions contributed 1.3 million men to fight in the War. However, the largest colonial contingent came from India, where 1.4 million men enlisted, 1 million of them serving outside the Indian continent. Lutyens’ massive India Gate memorial in Delhi commemorates 70,000 of those who lost their lives, and indicates the geographical spread of their involvement. The inscription reads:

‘To the Dead of the Indian Armies Who Fell Honoured in France and Flanders Mesopotamia and Persia East Africa Gallipoli and Elsewhere in the Near and Far East…’

The British Army used one million Africans in East Africa, mainly as carriers. At least 20 per cent died, mainly from disease, malnutrition and exhaustion. A further 83,000 black and coloured South Africans were recruited into the Native Labour Corps for service in Europe and South West Africa.

The ethnic mix of British merchant shipping crews is largely invisible in official records. British merchant (and naval) ships had a long tradition of employing crewmen from the Caribbean, Arabia,

Aboriginal member of the Canadian Forestry Corps in the UK

Aboriginal member of the Canadian Forestry Corps in the UK

Somalia, Zanzibar, West Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Malaya and China. About 15,000 of 155,000 personnel in the merchant and fishing fleets died during the War, but where are the Asian, Arab and African names on maritime war memorials?

Recruitment went beyond the official Empire. The British and French employed 145,000 contract Chinese labourers in Europe, the British having rejected the Chinese government’s offer of Chinese troops. More than 20,000 of them were killed on the battlefields, or died through illness or the arduous work. The 93,000 contracted by the British were not known by names, only by the serial numbers on the bolted iron tags they wore.

We can ask many questions about why the war participation of non-white colonial people has suffered neglect in public memory, both in Britain and in the former dominions and colonies themselves. In part, the lack of general literacy can explain the relative absence of letters, diaries and memoirs.  Deliberate decision making was also involved. Take, for example, the Imperial War Graves Commission’s decision that ‘Negroes in West Indian Regiments’ were to be ‘commemorated individually when buried in East Africa’; whilst for the native Africans a policy of ‘no individual commemoration’ was to be followed. As Santanu Das reminded us:  “In India, Senegal or Vietnam there is nothing like the Imperial War Museum; when a returned soldier or village headman died, a whole library vanished….As former colonies became nation states, nationalist narratives replaced imperial war memories. Stories that did not fit were airbrushed.”

So, as we discover our own family’s photographs, letters, diaries and service records, or trace the names on our local war memorials, perhaps we might also allow other lives into our cultural memory;  the millions of seldom identified men and women of the British Empire who were caught up in the Great War.

Annie Hedington

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Great- grandpa learns “when to say no”

Browsing the Huddersfield Chronicle archives I came across an article that may reveal how my great-grandparents met.

Alfred John and Charlotte Fanny Liversedge in their later years

Alfred John and Charlotte Fanny Liversedge in their later years

In the newspaper of 3rd January 1874 is a report of the annual meeting of the Brunswick Street Sunday School which took place on New Year’s Day when “considerably over 300 persons sat down to an excellent tea”.   In the presentation of prizes that followed a prize of £5 for the best poem on “when to say no” was awarded to Alfred J Liversedge, my great-grandfather.  But he is not the only family member to feature, E H Liversedge, his younger brother Edwin Hugh, won the second prize of 15s in the boys’ essay writing competition, the title being “what is our true purpose in life and how to achieve it”.  The girls were asked to write on the subject “the advantages of knowledge” and here the third prize of 10s went to Charlotte F Cook who five years later married Alfred and was my great-grandmother.  Keeping literary prowess within the family the first prize in the girls’ essay competition went to Mary A Tindall who in September that year married Charlotte’s older brother Alfred.

The evening was not just tea and prizes, a number of worthies also gave addresses, including a William Haigh and these were “most agreeably interspersed with songs and glees from the choir”.  To round off the evening votes of thanks were proposed, that to the prize donors being given by Mr A J Liversedge, Alfred’s father.

Sadly the Brunswick Street united Free Methodist Church no longer exists; established in 1857 by Wesleyan reformers who seceded from the Queen Street Wesleyan Methodist Church[1] it was closed in 1949 and demolished when Huddersfield Ring Road was built in the 1960s.  It cost nearly £7,000, was built in the Roman Corinthian style and contained 1,400 sittings[2].


[1] West Yorkshire Archive Service

[2] A vision of Britain through time

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Some Victorian weddings

I have just heard of a wedding taking place this summer which is to cost £55,000, a shocking expenditure in my opinion.  But will it be any more festive than some of the weddings  that took place between 1863 and 1870, uniting various members of my family then resident in Merioneth, North Wales?

A Victorian Wedding

A Victorian Wedding

The most striking difference between then and now is the close connection between the local community and the gentry, among which my forebears could now count themselves.  The villagers hung out flags in honour of the occasion; if they could not afford flags, they hung out their coloured handkerchiefs.  If the bride was local, they built decorative arches under which her carriage rolled towards the church.  These were covered with flowers and greenery, and carried banners wishing the couple well, in Welsh or English.  Children strewed the church path with flowers. Throughout the day, rounds of rock cannon were fired off.  This was a custom peculiar to North Wales.  Take a chunk of rock, bore some holes in it and fill these with gunpowder.  Fill a goose quill with powder to act as a fuse.  The resulting explosions illuminated and reverberated round the slate quarries.    In the evening neighbours lit up their windows with candles and there was a bonfire.  Mr John Casson’s wedding took place just before Christmas 1863 in the bride’s home village in Essex, so the main local celebration was to greet the couple when they returned on Christmas Eve from a short bridal tour.  A whole crowd met their carriage, unharnessed the horses and led the couple round the square in front of the Hotel, then off up the road and through an evergreen arch, to the family home.  Mr Casson made a speech, in English and Welsh, assuring his listeners that although ’Mrs Casson could not   speak to them in Welsh . . .she had promised him that she would try to learn the language’. The consensus was ‘that a merrier Christmas Eve was never seen in Festiniog’.

For that wedding, there was a dinner for the Casson household and farmhands, buns and oranges were distributed to all the schoolchildren, and half a pound of tea to each of the most deserving poor.  For his niece Mary Casson’s, in 1869, her parents laid on a ‘sumptuous luncheon’ for the wedding guests, a dinner in the farm-yard for tenants, workmen and neighbours, and a dinner of roast beef and plum pudding for the inmates of the workhouse at Penrhyndeudraeth, followed by evening tea.  The following year, Mary’s brother Thomas Casson married the daughter of a retired Welsh sea-captain, who lived like a squire in the nearby village of Talsarnau.  He laid on a grand supper for all his workers and families, and a tea-party for nearly 200 schoolchildren.  When the couple returned from honeymoon – the word was in general usage by then – there was an evening of music and speeches in the school to honour them, and the bride was presented with a handsome Bible and a celebratory ‘address’ engrossed on vellum.

These descriptions show up the sharp divide between rich and poor – which a welfare state was no doubt expected to eradicate.  But in these small Victorian Welsh communities, those who had either been born, or raised themselves,  into the gentry, clearly enjoyed and were honoured for carrying out some social obligations.


© Diana Devlin

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Scraps that survive

Among my grandmother’s (Mabel Burnley nee Harrison) few surviving papers are some interesting items.  There is a newspaper obituary of her father who died in 1933 and several letters about the business of clearing up his estate, but the oddest of all is a page from the Gomersal Book Society.  This must date between 1904-1913 and I cannot think of any reason why it has survived except by accident.  Nor can I find any trace of the book society to which it refers.

I suspect this was part of the Mechanics Institute in Gomersal which maintained a fair-sized library – it had 700 books when it was founded in 1854.  The reading room at the Institute, which had 200

A 100 year-old scrap of family history

A 100 year-old scrap of family history

members at this time, was well supplied with newspapers and journals, among them the Illustrated London News, Punch, the Leeds Mercury, Society of Arts Journal as well as evangelical magazines.  My great-grandfather, Thomas Lockwood Burnley and his cousin Thomas had been elected to the committee in 1887 and Thomas became a Trustee in 1907.  At some point the latter took charge of the English Mechanic and the Times Parliamentary Debates.  The rules of this book society were no doubt very ordinary, but from the tone one suspects that fines were levied and paid and the strict procedures complied with.  (If you click to enlarge the image you can read them).  It is nice to know that these two mill owners were fairly keen readers, on a wide range of subjects.  They had both had a respectable eduction – Thomas Lockwood at Applegate Grammar School in Newark – and Thomas at an obscure place in Doncaster.  This yellowing scrap of paper offers just a tiny and insignificant detail of their lives and how I wish more had survived.


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Where to next with Joseph?

I have just come back from the dentist who cheerfully informed me that the chipmunk bulge on the right side of my face was an abscess and a tooth will need to be pulled out as well as removing and remaking the neighbouring tooth’s cap to fill in the space.   I am lucky.  My dentist, well trained in my personal orthodontic needs since our first meeting as young things in the late 1970′s, will put me to sleep for the tooth extraction.   It made me wonder what the state and care of Joseph and his family’s teething was in the first half of the eighteenth century.

A Treatise on the Disorders and Deformities of the Teeth and Gums (1770)

A Treatise on the Disorders and Deformities of the Teeth and Gums (1770)

A Treatise on the Disorders and Deformities of the Teeth and Gums (1770) is thought to be the earliest book on dentistry.   Usually, whether wealthy or poor, teeth were ‘fixed’ by the local barber or blacksmith.   It was only later in the century that the idea – and quackery – of implanting teeth usually ripped from the mouths of children or young adults for a few coins laid the foundation for dentistry as we now know it.

I am assuming that since Joseph was 50 years old when he died he had good set of pearly whites.  There was no early death from blood poisoning due to rotten teeth or deformities in his facial features to indicate abscesses eating away into the jaw bones.  The two portraits of him painted by Thomas Hudson in the 1740′s show Joseph as a jolly man who looks as though he enjoys food and comfortable living.  I know from another portrait by an unknown artist that Joseph smoked so having tobacco stained teeth and a resulting questionable breath may have been normal for him.   But this may have been checked the 18th century drinking fluids which were mainly fermented and alcoholic, so maybe the alcohol acted as a mouthwash against most dental bacteria.

I think it is time to leave thoughts of Joseph’s teeth, but when I write my next blog hopefully mine will be back in the pink – or is that pearly white?



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